Sunday, February 9, 2014

Blue Eyes Are Genetic Mutation That Survived

The Surprising Origin of Blue Eyes

What Causes Blue Eyes?
A team at University of Copenhagen conducted a study in 2008 about the formation of blue eyes. The research showed that those who have blue eyes have a single common ancestor. They found a genetic mutation that took place between 6000 – 10,000 years ago which is the reason behind the occurrence of blue eyes and the causation of all blue eyed people today.

What is genetic mutation?
Eiberg, a professor of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, says we all had brown eyes originally. A genetic mutation affected the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes which created a switch that literally switched off the ability to produce brown eyes. The OCA2 is a gene that codes for P-protein, responsible for the production of melanin. Melanin is the pigment that gives color to hair, eyes, and skin. The switch is situated in the gene adjacent to OCA2 and does not entirely switch off the gene but limits its function to reduce the production of melanin in the iris – effectively diluting brown eyes to blue. If there were no melanin then we all would be without colors in our hair, eyes, and skin , a condition known as albinism.

Genetic Variation
Variation in eye color from brown to green is linked to the amount of melanin present in the iris. All blue-eyed people have a small amount of variation in the amount of melanin in their eyes , leading to the conclusion that all blue-eyed people have a common ancestor and have the same switch inherited at the same place in their DNA.

The findings of Professor Eiberg and his team are the latest regarding genes. He and his team examined mitochondrial DNA and analyzed and compared people who had blue eyes in countries like Jordan, Denmark, and Turkey. Research began in 1996 when Professor Eiberg suggested the theory of the OCA2 gene as responsible for eye color.

Shuffling of genes
Nature is responsible for the shuffling of genes. The mutation of brown eyes to blue ones does not represent a positive or negative mutation, it’s like many other mutations including baldness, hair color, freckles, and beauty spots, none of which affect chances of survival. Professor Eiberg explains that it is nature who is continuously and constantly shuffling the human genome thereby creating a cocktail of human chromosomes trying out changes.

Blue eye color is the second rarest color after green . Blue eyes are common among Israeli Jews, the percentage of people with blue eyes is decreasing in the US. The countries where you can find the most blue-eyed people are Netherland, Germany, the Baltic States, and Scandinavia. In Germany almost 75% of the population have blue eyes.

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Did You Know That Blue-Eyed People Can All Be Traced Back To a Single Ancestor?

Researchers from Copenhagen University have recently proven that a single mutation that emerged about 10,000 years ago is the reason why all blue-eyed people living today have that skyey eye colour. According to the scientists team the mutation must have arisen in a single individual living on the northwest coast of the Black Sea. The rear gene ‘creates’ a blue iris by turning off the mechanism responsible for generating brown melanin pigment.

New research shows that people with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor. A team at the University of Copenhagen have tracked down a genetic mutation which took place 6-10,000 years ago and is the cause of the eye colour of all blue-eyed humans alive on the planet today.

What is the genetic mutation
“Originally, we all had brown eyes”, said Professor Eiberg from the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. “But a genetic mutation affecting the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes resulted in the creation of a “switch”, which literally “turned off” the ability to produce brown eyes”. The OCA2 gene codes for the so-called P protein, which is involved in the production of melanin, the pigment that gives colour to our hair, eyes and skin.

The “switch”, which is located in the gene adjacent to OCA2 does not, however, turn off the gene entirely, but rather limits its action to reducing the production of melanin in the iris – effectively “diluting” brown eyes to blue. The switch’s effect on OCA2 is very specific therefore. If the OCA2 gene had been completely destroyed or turned off, human beings would be without melanin in their hair, eyes or skin colour – a condition known as albinism.

Limited genetic variation
Variation in the colour of the eyes from brown to green can all be explained by the amount of melanin in the iris, but blue-eyed individuals only have a small degree of variation in the amount of melanin in their eyes. “From this we can conclude that all blue-eyed individuals are linked to the same ancestor,” says Professor Eiberg. “They have all inherited the same switch at exactly the same spot in their DNA.” Brown-eyed individuals, by contrast, have considerable individual variation in the area of their DNA that controls melanin production.

Professor Eiberg and his team examined mitochondrial DNA and compared the eye colour of blue-eyed individuals in countries as diverse as Jordan, Denmark and Turkey. His findings are the latest in a decade of genetic research, which began in 1996, when Professor Eiberg first implicated the OCA2 gene as being responsible for eye colour.

Nature shuffles our genes
The mutation of brown eyes to blue represents neither a positive nor a negative mutation. It is one of several mutations such as hair colour, baldness, freckles and beauty spots, which neither increases nor reduces a human’s chance of survival. As Professor Eiberg says, “it simply shows that nature is constantly shuffling the human genome, creating a genetic cocktail of human chromosomes and trying out different changes as it does so.”

Story Source:
The above story is based on materials provided by University of Copenhagen. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

- Posted using BlogPress from an iPhone owned by Ralph Paglia

Saturday, May 18, 2013

Internet Marketing Tree for Car Dealers


The Infographic diagram of Internet Marketing Strategy illustrated in the image above correctly identifies the major core competences that car dealers and their marketing managers need to have mastered and implemented on a continuous basis... Email marketing is especially important for car dealers and is essential to realizing the opportunities to do business and revenue points that drive ROI for the dealership across multiple marketing communication channels... Think of email marketing capabilities as the salt and pepper in the Chet's kitchen of automotive digital marketing. 

Directories and Business Listings are akin to basic blocking and tackling... There are literally hundreds of these online services and publications which ever car dealership should be correctly listed in with all points of contact, including actual phone numbers owned by the dealership, physical location addresses and URL's for every dealership controlled website and social media profile. Additional items that should be included in these directory listings include logos, photos, images, coupons, maps, directions and videos.

Regardless of personal opinions or anecdotal misdirection, it is critically important for car dealerships to have a well designed and fully populated portfolio of social media channels, accounts, profiles, pages and sites. This includes blogs, photo, video and consumer generated content sites that feature customer reviews and ratings.. Each of these social media assets must be continuously monitored and updated. Yes, it is a big job and worthy of a full time position within the dealership's employee staff. The impact of social media and consumer generated content on a dealership's reputation and branding within the local market cannot be understated. In the absence of a dealership controlling this communication diamond with many facets, the risk of adverse information becoming the dominant presence for the dealership is simply too high. Each dealership must secure their name as user names so that the SocialMedia profile page URL contains the same keywords that customers would use in a search query when seeking information about the business and its reputation among customers. It is critically important to understand that customer comments, blog posts, status updates and tweets have a similar impact on the dealership's reputation as actual review and rating sites set up for such purposes... In some cases, when a disgruntled customer, former employee, competitor or even a malcontent seizing the opportunity to claim a URL with dealer's name in it, the damage to the dealership's reputation and business revenue can exceed the negative impact of many bad reviews on sites without massive followings. 

Speaking of massive followings, my direct experience working with dealerships over the past year has shown that certain user generated content (UGC) sites have far stronger impact on their member's car buying and service spending activities than others. Case in point; YELP! Has emerged as a major player in the area of business reputation and where members actually spend money. Unlike Edmunds, DealerRater,, CarFolks and other automotive specific ratings and review sites, Yelp has a loyal, active and high income membership demographic that seeks out businesses, including dealerships with a robust presence within the Yelp user community online. Dealers who stand out from their competitors on Yelp achieve a major competitive advantage... Yelpers are so loyal when it comes to where they spend money that it reminds me of when an LDS (Mormon) church leader or Hasidic Jew owns a dealership... They can count on their fellow members doing business with them to the exclusion of non-member owned dealerships. My advice to all dealers and GM's is to build your personal profile on Yelp with daily content and review submissions and make sure your affiliation with the dealership's enhanced business profile on Yelp is prominent and clearly displayed.  For those who ask, I always recommend that a dealership invest the monthly fee for a Yelp Enhanced Business Profile and allocate a portion of the dealership's online advertising budget to Yelp display and pay-per-click (PPC) search advertising.

As important as it is to allocate significant budget to Search Engine Marketing campaigns which include PPC with Google Adwords and Microsoft Advertising (Bing), it is equally important to have a consistent and effective Online Display Advertising strategy that incorporates use of advanced targeting technologies.  Examples of audience targeting technologies and tactics that have served dealers well are:

1. Geotargeting - Dealership is only charged when Ads appear on computers and mobile devices within the dealer's specified geographic area. 

2. Demographic Targeting - dealer only pays for the ads which appear for consumers within defined age, gender, income levels, education, residential and or marriage status.

3. Contextual Targeting - Dealer only pays for ads which appear on web pages with content that includes keywords such as make, model, and those indicating and interest in buying or servicing a vehicle.

4. Behavioral Targeting - BT is sexy and has sizzle when agencies are selling dealers because it is based on tracking which consumers are visiting websites that in combination are virtually certain to identify those shopping for a new or used vehicle. BT has come a long way over the past few years and when done properly is a highly effective tactic.

5. Retargeting - This is the holy grail of online advertising... Following customers who have visited on of the dealership's websites, blogs, social media channels and displaying ads to them while they visit their favorite sites, check their email or participate in social networking.

Regardless of targeting, the messaging and creative we include in our online display advertising (ODA), Search Engine Advertising (SEA) and content marketing (social media and blogs) are what determines the success of a dealership's overall Internet Marketing Strategy. Great copy and eye catching creative is more important than ever before and trumps any type of targeting or placement prowess. Make sure your display ads are strong enough to grab consumer attention and the message has to be so compelling that you do not depend on click throughs for the ad's impression to effect consumer behavior. Search Engine Ads must be written within a tight set of constraints to quickly convince consumers that the site it is linked to is exactly what they were searching for in the first place. Using dynamic multimedia display ads that allow customers to check inventory, call the dealership and submit inquiries without ever leaving the web page where the ad is seen have transformed ODA into one of the most effective tools in a dealership marketing toolbox for generating leads, phone calls and showroom traffic.

Want more information and how to's? Be sure to visit and join the professional network at http:// . My name is Ralph Paglia and I have been selling new and used cars, trucks, parts and service using the Internet for over 20 years. 
Ralph Paglia
President - Automotive Media Partners, LLC 


Saturday, October 13, 2012

AutoCon 2012 Review - Stan Sher of Dealer eTraining - Automotive Social Media Marketing

AutoCon 2012 Review - Stan Sher of Dealer eTraining - Automotive Social Media Marketing

AutoCon 2012! AutoCon 2012! AutoCon 2012!  Phew...
By now I am sure that if you are reading this that you are aware that AutoCon 2012 is over.  I am sure that you have been bombarded with emails, blogs, and social media posts promoting the ultimate Automotive Dealership Digital Conference.  Well, AutoCon has been over for the past 5 days.  Those of you that know me know that I like to write reviews after I attend a conference or convention.

Let me start out by saying that AutoCon 2012 has been a huge.  Ralph Paglia, Chris Saraceno, Mike Myers, Brian Pasch, Carrie Hemphill (First Class Educators) have proven to be a real class act and true pioneers of putting on an automotive conference.  The First Class Educators name fits exactly with how they operate and what they offer to the automotive industry.  I am talking about the setup of the event, the quality of speakers, content, the food setup, the preparation, the venue, and many other aspects of event planning.
So how great was AutoCon?  It was amazing!  We kicked off the event with a powerful keynote session that included Jim Ziegler and Bill Lovejoy.  As always Jim, was entertaining and fun to watch.  It was an even bigger treat to see Jim get a lifetime achievement award.  The event continued with the AWA awards.  I had been really tired from a long day of travel so I cut out a little early just to relax.  That first day I got to hang out with my friend and client, Eric Nichols of Apple Honda.  He was there on a full ride scholarship on behalf of TrueCar (Thanks TrueCar for allowing Eric to further his education).  I even hung out with my friend Jason Mitchell of Classic Chevrolet in Beaumont, TX.  Eric and I played some slots and blackjack.  We had a great dinner and relaxed.  I got to hang out with Grant Cardone and his crew along with Richard Bustillo (Rick Case Honda) while these guys crushed it at Blackjack.
On Thursday, we went full force at attending workshops.  It started out with my friend Sean Stapleton of VinSolutions where he had an amazing keynote session.  As always, Eric and I visited a session that Ralph Paglia was giving on "The Evolution of Digital Marketing".  Later on we saw Lon Safko
give an amazing keynote session.  I had met Lon and even bought his books.  They are worth every penny.  I got to hang out with some awesome dealer people including Adam Barish (owner of Route 23 Honda) and Bear Goodman (eCommerce director of Holmes Auto Group).  Later on we visited the workshop that April Rain (Digital Rain) had put on and it was very powerful.  I had taken some time to relax and visit the exhibit hall.  Later on I was hanging out with Dan Weik (BusinessRater) as we went to the VinSolutions party.  There I met some people from Morrie's Auto Group and hung out with Megan Barto of (Ciocca Honda).
On Friday, my man Grant Cardone had a killer motivating keynote session.  I then visited a session by my friend Marc McGurren (PCG Consulting).  He had an awesome session on BDC and digital marketing.  I like Marc because he is a knowledgeable and professional person.  After that session, I went to see the undisputed king of prospecting himself, Fran Taylor who spoke about many ways of being a successful sales person.  Even though his session had nothing to do with digital marketing, he was still able to discuss and show how the basics of 20 years ago still work today in dealerships across the country.  Later on I saw my very good friend John Giamalvo of talk about SEO and maximizing opportunity.  After that session I met a dealer with their internet manager that had approached Eric Nichols because they read about his success story.  I had them scope out VinSolutions for a CRM tool and they talked with Eric about what it took to make him successful at his dealership.  I finished the day with seeing my very good friend Tracy Myers who is one of the top independent dealers in the country as well as a motivational speaker.  He is just such a smart guy and I am so honored to have him as a friend.  I laid low that evening because I was preparing to speak the following morning.  I missed the awesome AutoBash party but there will be others.
The following morning, I woke up and got ready.  I put on my pressed suit and walked out of my room feeling like a million bucks.  I walked into the conference and ready to have the best session ever.  It was unfortunate that a lot of people had either left Friday night, early that morning or slept in after partying the night before.  However, it was still a good attendance.  I have an attendance of 15 people and was speaking at the same time as Ralph PagliaJim Radogna, Brian Pasch , Jim Ziegler, Dave PageJack Simmons ( and Richard Bustillo .  We all had our fair share of attendees.  My session was "The Evolution of the BDC" and it went great.  I was told by attendees that the information that they learned in my session was so strong that they had a plan when they get back to their stores.  I was amazed that my Q&A session lasted 30 minutes too.  For those of you that missed the session, I will present a similar session at future conferences that might include Internet Sales 20 Group and Digital Marketing Strategies Conference.  As always, if you would like to personally be trained on this workshop and get your dealership going, feel free to contact me and we can get started.
I ended the conference by having lunch with Brian Pasch, Glenn Pasch, Carrie Hemphill, Ralph Paglia, Tracy Meyers, and Benjamin Freedman.  It was a great way to finish the conference and have a celebration of the ending of a successful conference.  My only regret is that I missed some sessions that I wanted to be at.  However, I will catch up with them in the coming days as the content is available for attendees to view.  I could not be everywhere at one time.  I had enjoyed being a part of this conference and I look forward to being a part of future AutoCon conferences.  I also want to thank the creators of AutoCon for giving me the opportunity to share and provide quality information to the automotive industry.

Sunday, May 13, 2012

Social Media Content; Best Days and Times for Car Dealers to Post - Automotive Marketing

Social Media Content; Best Days and Times for Car Dealers to Post - Automotive Digital Marketing Professional Community

When car dealers and automotive marketers are looking to achieve high click counts, the optimal time to post is similar for Twitter and Facebook, but differs dramatically for Tumblr... details in a May 2012 blog post.
Exploring how content propagates through social networks, and how the day and time of a post affect the attention received, the company finds that for Twitter, posting in the afternoon earlier in the week (1-3 PM Monday through Thursday)gives the best chance at achieving a high click count for car dealerships and automotive marketers. Similarly, on Facebook, links posted from 1-4 PM result in the highest average click throughs, with Wednesday at 3 PM proving to be the peak time of the week. By contrast, Friday evening, which is the slowest time on the other platforms, is the optimal time to for automotive marketing professionals to post on Tumblr, with posts after 7 PM on average receiving more clicks over 24 hours than content posted mid-day during the week.

Facebook Traffic Peaks Mid-Week

Looking at the traffic patterns by automotive consumers among the 3 biggest social networks, reveals that Facebook traffic peaks mid-week, from 1-3 PM. Traffic begins to increase around 9 AM, and fades after 4 PM. The peaks of Twitter activity by automotive consumers occur from 9 AM through 3 PM, Monday through Thursday. The post suggests that while posting on Twitter when there are many people (overall) clicking helps raise the average number of clicks, it does not guarantee the optimal amount of attention by automotive consumers, given the increased competition.

In contrast again to activity on Facebook and Twitter, traffic from Tumblr for automotive marketers and car dealerships peaks between 7 PM and 10 PM on Monday and Tuesday, with similar traffic on Sunday.

Majority of Google+ Activity Occurs During Work Hours

Meanwhile, according to a May 2012 study from Simply Measured, the vast majority of Google+ activity takes place during the work day, with car company brand posts and total automotive consumer engagement peaking at 9 AM.  It is noteworthy that 10 AM is also a significant hour for car company brand posts, while the evening hours and early morning hours see the least engagement from automotive consumers.

Looking at days of the week, the report finds that car company and OEM posts and total automotive consumer engagement peak on Wednesday, with Monday and Thursday following... Saturday and Sunday see the least amount of activity.

Other Findings:

  • The Simply Measured report also finds that Google+ adoption by car companies (OEM) and activity appear to be on the rise. Looking at the Interbrand Top 100 list, the study finds that 64 major corporations have activated a brand page, up from 62 in February (the 3-month anniversary), and 61 in December (the 1-month anniversary).
  • 22 of the Interbrand Top 100 brands now have a circler count of more than 100,000, up from 13 in February, while the number who post more than 3 times a week to their page has almost tripled (from 15 to 43) in that timeframe.
  • The automotive industry leads the way in circler size, ahead of electronics and luxury.
  • Average weekly circler engagement has risen 112% in the past 3 months, even though the scale of activity still does not come close to Facebook or Twitter. 
  • Google+ content engagement among automotive consumers is also growing, with multimedia content - in particular video - driving the vast majority of engagement.

Monday, January 4, 2010

Social Marketing and Reputation Management in Dealer Advertising Budgets

With the rapidly emerging predominance of User Generated Content (UGC) activity on Social Networks, photo and video hosting sites, and various types of blogs as a percentage of total consumer online activity, it would seem to be only a matter of time before car dealers realize the necessity of creating online dealership communities made up of members who contribute to site content, dialogue and the exchange of information and assets. Despite the low cost, and even no cost access to various Web 2.0 User Generated Content sites and resources that all dealers have access to, there are costs involved to do it right, and there is a lot of time consuming work to get it right. Let's face it, nobody works for free and neither do people asked to get a dealership social marketing strategy off the ground and put into place... And then there is maintenance. The fact is, conventional old school advertising campaigns don't engage people any more, they just interrupt whatever customers are doing and at most, if done really right, they entertain customers. By approaching the tactical implementation of a social marketing strategy with a relatively small monthly budget, dealers can:
1. Have a dedicated URL that enhances SEO for their Dealership Community
2. Remove advertising on their Community site and use the space for their own ads
3. Enroll in a Dealer Review program and use filtered content widgets and RSS feeds for Reputation Management
4. Sponsor various contests and awards to encourage customers to actively participate in the dealer's community
5. Use Search Advertising to attract customers and drive dealership community enrollment
7. Sponsor various events and club activities that are announced on the dealer's community site

From what I have seen so far, the most successful dealership UGC communities will attract and engage a healthy mix of existing dealership customers, dealership employees, dealership suppliers, OEM field staff and prospective dealership customers from various sources of traffic. I will use this article to display a list of dealership community sites that I believe best represent this emerging form of online customer relationship and reputation management. As time goes on, my intent is to keep this article updated with the addition of more dealership Web 2.0 UGC community sites as they are created and I find out about them.

Find more videos like this on Automotive Digital Marketing Professional Community (ADM)

Check out the following dealership created online UGC communities based on Web 2.0 site platforms... The recently created Automotive Avenues Dealership Community was was built by an ADP Digital Advertising team Marketing Analyst, Tom DiSanto:

5. Beck Toyota Scion Community at
6. The Upstate Honda Enthusiast Community - Breakaway Honda; Greenville, SC
7. The Boston Cadillac Community created by ADM Professional Chris Fousek
8. My Jeep Community at from Westbury Jeep in Westbury, NY
9. The Boston Honda Community at created for Honda Gallery of North Reading, MA.
10. The Acton Toyota Community is a great example of getting dealership employees to participate.
11. ADM's very own Amy Rothenberger has created an exceptionally well designed Mazda Community site.
12. A new Online Automotive Community at is from Rich Ford of Albuquerque.
13. Check out created by ADM's own Ken Nix!
14. Check out the 7 Store Kenny Ross Auto Group Community at which is set up with all the optional Ning Premium Services including ownership of the Advertising space and revenue stream.
15. Gallery Honda in North Reading, MA:
16. Gallery BMW stores of Norwood and Norwell, MA:
17. Gallery Volkswagen of Norwood, MA:
18. Gallery Mazda of Norwood, MA;
19. The Automotive Avenues Credit Union affiliated dealership in Denver, CO;
20. The Ancira Auto Group in San Antonio, TX is one of the most successful dealer groups in America to embrace Social Media Marketing and Reputation Management, in addition to over 100 social network profiles and blogs, their core online community is at with over 200 active employees participating!

Non-Animated Versions of Advertisements used by Automotive Avenues to Drive Community Enrollment:

 is an online social network of new and classic Volkswagen, Owners and Enthusiasts.

The Tysinger Auto Group Community in Virginia Beach, VA

The Tysinger Community site is very impressive. Richard set it up for his dealership's customers, employees and suppliers... There are so few people that really understand the value in creating an online dealership community when it is not just to sell, sell, sell today! I know that Tysinger's customers, the dealership employees and the suppliers that the Tysinger stores use will appreciate the work on Richard's part.

It would be great if Richard would publish on ADM anything that he sees or notices in regards to making a dealership Web 2.0 type site work or not work... I will participate as much as I can, and will be sure to let anyone in Tysinger's area know about their dealership community, and their efforts at carving out a new customer relationship development and management model...

For the site, I downloaded about 10,000 names and email addresses from their ILM, then uploaded them into the Ning invite system and sent them out... If I had to do it over again, I would have broken up those 10,000 emails into 10 separate files and spaced out the invitations at 1,000 per week for 10 weeks.

The site is one of the better examples I have yet seen of a dealer leveraging the power of's customer review data feed that pushes positive reviews to dealer designated websites... Perfect for the Web 2.0/UGC applications such as a dealer community built on the Ning platform.

Other great examples of Reputation Management by Car Dealers using Certified Dealer Tools within their community site include the New York metro based Westbury Jeep's and the Automotive Avenues Credit Union vehicle sales dealership in Denver at

Wendell Dossett is an active ADM Professional who has created an online community for his dealership's customers, employees and suppliers. The Beck Toyota Scion Community is one of many newer dealership sponsored communities and holds a ton of promise, especially given the social networking characteristics of the typical Scion owner... We are looking forward to hearing from Wendell about what works and what doesn't with this new genre of dealership website.

To learn more about the Automotive Social Marketing and Reputation Management Solutions from the ADP Digital Marketing Team please complete the online form available by clicking on the image below:


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